Study / Scientific Publication
"Biomedical Applications of Photo- and Sono-Activated Rose Bengal: A Review"
Keywords: Rose Bengal, photodynamic therapy, photochemical tissue bonding, photothrombosis, sonodynamic therapy
Over recent years, photosensitizers have been of increasing scientific interest in biomedical research due to their versatility and usability in many different fields and applications.
These include wastewater treatment, fine chemical synthesis, and photodynamic applications such as blood sterilization and sunlight-activated herbicides and insecticides.
Rose Bengal (RB) is one of the most versatile of all the photosensitizers.
Its low price combined with its wide availability and its photosensitive and sono-sensitive properties make RB a good candidate for use in biomedical research, as demonstrated by the increasing number of items in which Rose Bengal is used as a keyword in PubMed each year (Fig. 1, both left and below).
RB is FDA approved as a vital stain to assess the ocular surface, especially in the evaluation of dry eye treatments.
Moreover, as a dye, RB has been used for decades as a liver function assay in its radioactive form. However, RB can also be combined with light or ultrasound for other applications in the medical field. Although some review papers on biomedical applications report the use of photo- and sono-activated RB, an overview of the complete spectrum of applications and main outcomes is missing.
Considering the increasing use of RB in the biomedical field, there is a need for a comprehensive review of the extensive range of applications of photo- and sono-activated RB. This simplifies comparisons and analyses of procedures and results, raising awareness of all the ways in which photo- and sono-activated RB can be applied.
In this review article, we aim at meeting this need, first by describing and discussing the biomedical applications of photo-activated RB, summarized into four main categories:
- Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB)
- Photodynamic therapy (PDT)
- Photothrombotic animal models
- Other applications
Second, we review applications of sono-activated RB, including:
- Cancer treatment
- Antimicrobial therapy
Lastly, the biomedical applications and future perspectives of photo- and sono-activated RB are discussed.
"Rose Bengal (RB) is one of the most versatile of all the photosensitizers.
Its low price combined with its wide availability and its photosensitive and sono-sensitive properties make RB a good candidate for use in biomedical research, as demonstrated by the increasing number of items in which Rose Bengal is used as a keyword in PubMed each year."
Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss and compare the extensive range of biomedical applications of photo- and sono-activated Rose Bengal (RB).
Background data: RB is a xanthene dye that due to its interesting photo- and sono-sensitive properties is gaining attention in the scientific field.
Methods: This study is a literature review using the database PubMed.
Results: As a photosensitizer, RB converts the triplet oxygen molecule into reactive oxygen species after irradiation with green light (532nm). This mechanism allows for the use of photo-activated RB in photo- chemical tissue bonding, photodynamic therapy, antimicrobial therapy and cancer treatment, photothrombotic animal models, and other applications, including tissue engineering and treatment of tauopathies. As a sono- sensitive compound, RB is applied for sonodynamic therapy, cancer treatment, and antimicrobial therapy.
Conclusions: This review outlines the versatility and effectiveness of photo- and sono-activated RB in numerous biomedical applications.